GSM full name is the Groupe Special Mobile (Original)

GSM
By the early 1980s analog cellular telephone systems were attracting ever more customers. Each country was developing its own standard and which was often incompatible with others.

Standardization seemed essential and so in 1982, the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) was established by a consortium of thirteen telecommunications interests to develop a common cell phone system throughout Europe. (Appropriately, the acronym was later changed to represent the words “Global System for Mobile Communications.”. The first GSM phone call was made on the Finnish Radiology network in 1991 and by 1997, 100 countries had implemented a GSM capable network.

Global System for Mobile Communications stove to produce a standard for all the elements of a cellular mobile phone call, including the particular frequencies to be used for receiving and transmitting calls. Since the signalling and speech channels of the Global System for Mobile Communications network are digital, the network is considered a second generation (2G) phone system. Voices are digitized, compressed and then sent through the Global System for Mobile Communications network-a far more efficient use of network resources than afforded by its analog predecessor. Also, data could sent to and from the digital phone of up to 9,600 bps (Bits Per Second) and with the appropriate hardware adapter, documents could be faxed, too. Other Global System for Mobile Communications services incorporated include call forwarding, call barring, call waiting and caller identification. Most remarkable and influential of all, Global System for Mobile Communications introduced the Short Message System (SMS) for text messaging.

The GSM Association the trade association of GSM, Estimates that the standard is used by 82% of the world’s cell phone users, across more than 210 different countries and territories.

GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in Finland in July 1991. “GSM” is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the (initially) most common voice codec used, Full Rate.

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